HBOT’s primary role is to treat the bubble, using physics and gas laws to compress the bubble. Secondary action is to treat the inflammatory response caused by the bubble blockage.
AGE’s first treatment should be preformed in a hospital or a deck decompression chamber. Residual lasting symptoms can be treated at our facility.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning is known to suffocate you from the inside. Carbon monoxide attaches to your hemoglobin preventing oxygen from attaching and being carried throughout the body.
Hyperbaric oxygen has several actions beneficial in ameliorating pathophysiological events associated with CNS injuries mediated by CO. When treated at proper depths (2.5 ATA to 3 ATA) HBOT accelerates the disassociation of CO from hemoglobin. Subsequent treatments treat the neurological sequela caused by the CO poisoning.
- Improvement in mitochondrial oxidative processes.
- Inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
- Impairment of leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature.
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion is a relatively rare condition of the eye that results in the sudden painless vision loss. The retina has the highest rate of oxygen consumption of an organ in the body at 13ml/100g/min. Early HBOT, along with supplemental surface level of HBOT can increase tissue survivability and vision retention until the artery can be cleared.
Clostridial myositis with myonecrosis or gas gangrene is an acute, rapidly porgressive, nonpyogenic, invasive clostridial infection of the muscles, characterized by profound toxemia, extensive edema, massive death of tissue, and a variable degree of gas production. This type of infection is caused by an anaerobic bacilli.
HBOT is used adjunctively with surgery and antibiotics.
- Tissue p02 >300mmHg stops exotoxin production.
- Compression reduces gas bubble size and tissue pressure improving perfusion.
- Increases in free radical production kills (anaerobic) bacteria.
- Less heroic surgeries are required.
HBO clarifies the demarcation area.
Crush injuries are directly associated with trauma while skeletal muscle compartment syndromes arise from ischemia, venous outflow obstruction, exertion, external compression as well as trauma. HBOT counteracts the pathophysiological events which occur in these conditions.
- Hyperbaric oxygen supplements oxygen availability to tissue that may otherwise die from hypoxia
- Reduction in loss of muscle function
- Reduction in metabolites associated with muscle injury
- Edema reduction
- Reduction in muscle necrosis
Decompression Sickness/Decompression Illness or “the bends” arises from the generation of bubbles of inert gas in the blood. Caused by rapid ascent or insufficient decompression from diving, flying or in a hyperbaric or hypobaric chamber.
Similar to AGE, HBOT works by mechanically compressing the formed bubble. Secondarily it treats the inflammation caused by the bubble blockage.
Problem wounds represent a significant and growing challenge to healthcare. Venous leg ulcers represent the most common lower extremity wound seen in wound care centers followed closely by diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcers in patients with diabetes contribute to over half of lower extremity amputations in the United States.
Factors negatively affecting wound healing include persistent infection, poor perfusion and hypoxia, cellular failure, and unrelieved pressure or recurrent trauma.Hypoxia can be directly correlated to impaired wound healing and an increase in wound infection.Tissue oxygen tensions surrounding the wound are about half of the normal values found in normal, non-wounded tissue.The rate at which normal wounds heal is proven to be oxygen dependent.
- Fibroblast replication
- Collagen deposition
- resistance to infection
- intracellular leukocyte bacterial killing
Classified as a hearing loss of at least 30bB occurring within 3 days over at least 3 frequencies. Usually presenting as sudden unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness and vertigo. There are an estimated 5-20 cases per 100,000 annually. The cochlea and it’s structures require a high oxygen supply. Pt’s with ISSHL have show to have decreased oxygen tensions to these structures.
HBOT has shown to increase diffusion of oxygen to the damaged areas. Patients with ISSHL have the greatest benefit when treated with in 14 days of symptom onset.
Intracranial abscess include cerebral abscess, subdural empyema and epidural empyema. It is defined as a focal, encapsulated infection of cerebral parenchyma and is caused by a wide array of microorganisms such as bacteria, mycobacteria, protozoa, fungi or helminths. Treatment for this indication is challenging as it’s difficult to penetrate the blood brain barrier.
HBOT as an adjunctive therapy directly address the physiologic challenges in treating intracranial abscesses. Increased partial pressures of oxygen correct the tissue hypoxia and exert bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, particularly with anerobic organisms.
- Enhances effect of antibiotic agent and neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of infecting organisms
- Reduced brain swelling, resulting in decreased intracranial pressure
- Bacteriostatic and bactericidal
- Decreased morbidity and mortality rate
Necrotizing Soft Tissue infection is a severe life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate. The common denominator in necrotizing soft tissue infections seems to be hypoxia resulting in necrosis. HBOT is used adjunctively with surgery and antibiotics to treat this invasive infection.
- HBOT reduces the amount of hypoxic leukocyte disfunction within the area of infection
- Provides oxygen to the ischemic areas limiting the spread of infection
- Enhances antibiotic penetration into target area
Chronic Refractory Osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of the bone marrow. It is difficult to treat due to the scarce amounts of blood vessels in the bone. Consequently antimicrobials do not penetrate bone well. Patients with osteomyelitis in the skull, spine or sternum have a high risk of morbidity and mortality.
- Delivers oxygen in plasma to areas with little or no perfusion.
- Provides 02 to fibroblasts-cells that make connective tissue-promoting healing in hypoxic tissue.
- Enhances the effects of some antibiotics.
- Prevents PMN leukocytes from adhering to to damaged blood vessel linings decreasing inflammation.
Radiation’s initial damage causes edema (swelling) and inflammation followed by erythema and obliterative endarteritis which increase hypoxia in the tissue. The damaged tissue has a lack of normal capillaries and arterioles. In addition, these capillaries are decreased and disorganized further contributing to tissue hypoxia. These changes often happen 6 months to years after the initial radiation treatments and can occur with as little as 3000 cGy.
HBOT can alleviate and repair the side effects of radiation.
HBO Changes this by
- Improving tissue healing
- Resolving radiation necrosis
- Preventing radiation necrosis and supporting reconstructive surgery in irradiated tissue
- Which triggers growth of new blood vessels and collagen synthesis
Exceptional Blood Loss Anemia is a marked loss of red blood cells by mass hemorrhage, hemolysis, or aplasia. Theses patients lack adequate oxygen carrying capacity by blood. Hyperbaric oxygen provides a way in exceptional blood loss anemia to successfully correct accumulating oxygen debt in un-transfusible patients
Tissue grafts and flaps are used to reconstruct wound from Trauma, disease, tumors, burn, infections and prior surgeries. Despite careful planning and execution failure can occur for a variety of reasons resulting tissue loss, additional surgeries and negative physiological effects.
HBOT has demonstrated the ability to salvage compromised grafts and flaps.
- Increases oxygen to grafted tissue prolonging graft survival while blood supply is established
- Stimulates the growth of new blood vessels to ensure long term survival of tissue
Burn wounds are complex injuries that change dynamically over the first 72 hours after injury. Swelling and damage to capillaries result in decreased tissue oxygenation. Early intervention with HBOT can reduce healing time.
- Modulator for inflammation-decreased edema has a positive impact on hemodynamic instability and later wound conversion
- Reduced scarring and hypertrophic scars
- preservation of viable tissue
- particular benefit for inhalation injury