FDA Approved Applications

Air Gas Embolism

HBOT’s primary role is to treat the bubble, using physics and gas laws to compress the bubble. Secondary action is to treat the inflammatory response caused by the bubble blockage.

AGE’s first treatment should be preformed in a hospital or a deck decompression chamber. Residual lasting symptoms can be treated at our facility.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon Monoxide (CO) poisoning is known to suffocate you from the inside. Carbon monoxide attaches to your hemoglobin preventing oxygen from attaching and being carried throughout the body.

Hyperbaric oxygen has several actions beneficial in ameliorating pathophysiological events associated with CNS injuries mediated by CO. When treated at proper depths (2.5 ATA to 3 ATA) HBOT accelerates the disassociation of CO from hemoglobin. Subsequent treatments treat the neurological sequela caused by the CO poisoning.

Hyperbaric oxygen:

  • Improvement in mitochondrial oxidative processes.
  • Inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
  • Impairment of leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature.

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion is a relatively rare condition of the eye that results in the sudden painless vision loss. The retina has the highest rate of oxygen consumption of an organ in the body at 13ml/100g/min. Early HBOT, along with supplemental surface level of HBOT can increase tissue survivability and vision retention until the artery can be cleared.

Clostridial Myonecrosis (Gas Gangrene)

Clostridial myositis with myonecrosis or gas gangrene is an acute, rapidly porgressive, nonpyogenic, invasive clostridial infection of the muscles, characterized by profound toxemia, extensive edema, massive death of tissue, and a variable degree of gas production. This type of infection is caused by an anaerobic bacilli.

HBOT is used adjunctively with surgery and antibiotics.

  • Tissue p02 >300mmHg stops exotoxin production.
  • Compression reduces gas bubble size and tissue pressure improving perfusion.
  • Increases in free radical production kills (anaerobic) bacteria.
  • Less heroic surgeries are required.
    HBO clarifies the demarcation area.

Crush Injuries and Skeletal Muscle Compartment Syndromes

Crush injuries are directly associated with trauma while skeletal muscle compartment syndromes arise from ischemia, venous outflow obstruction, exertion, external compression as well as trauma. HBOT counteracts the pathophysiological events which occur in these conditions.

  • Hyperbaric oxygen supplements oxygen availability to tissue that may otherwise die from hypoxia
  • Reduction in loss of muscle function
  • Reduction in metabolites associated with muscle injury
  • Edema reduction
  • Reduction in muscle necrosis

Decompression Sickness

Decompression Sickness/Decompression Illness or “the bends” arises from the generation of bubbles of inert gas in the blood. Caused by rapid ascent or insufficient decompression from diving, flying or in a hyperbaric or hypobaric chamber.

Similar to AGE, HBOT works by mechanically compressing the formed bubble. Secondarily it treats the inflammation caused by the bubble blockage.

Enhancement of healing in Select Problem Wounds

Problem wounds represent a significant and growing challenge to healthcare. Venous leg ulcers represent the most common lower extremity wound seen in wound care centers followed closely by diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcers in patients with diabetes contribute to over half of lower extremity amputations in the United States.

Factors negatively affecting wound healing include persistent infection, poor perfusion and hypoxia, cellular failure, and unrelieved pressure or recurrent trauma.Hypoxia can be directly correlated to impaired wound healing and an increase in wound infection.Tissue oxygen tensions surrounding the wound are about half of the normal values found in normal, non-wounded tissue.The rate at which normal wounds heal is proven to be oxygen dependent.

HBOT Increases

  • Fibroblast replication
  • Collagen deposition
  • angiogenesis
  • resistance to infection
  • intracellular leukocyte bacterial killing

Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (ISSHL)

Classified as a hearing loss of at least 30bB occurring within 3 days over at least 3 frequencies. Usually presenting as sudden unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, aural fullness and vertigo. There are an estimated 5-20 cases per 100,000 annually. The cochlea and it’s structures require a high oxygen supply. Pt’s with ISSHL have show to have decreased oxygen tensions to these structures.

HBOT has shown to increase diffusion of oxygen to the damaged areas. Patients with ISSHL have the greatest benefit when treated with in 14 days of symptom onset.

Intracranial Abscess

Intracranial abscess include cerebral abscess, subdural empyema and epidural empyema. It is defined as a focal, encapsulated infection of cerebral parenchyma and is caused by a wide array of microorganisms such as bacteria, mycobacteria, protozoa, fungi or helminths. Treatment for this indication is challenging as it’s difficult to penetrate the blood brain barrier.

HBOT as an adjunctive therapy directly address the physiologic challenges in treating intracranial abscesses. Increased partial pressures of oxygen correct the tissue hypoxia and exert bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, particularly with anerobic organisms.


  • Enhances effect of antibiotic agent and neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of infecting organisms
  • Reduced brain swelling, resulting in decreased intracranial pressure
  • Bacteriostatic and bactericidal
  • Decreased morbidity and mortality rate

Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

Necrotizing Soft Tissue infection is a severe life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate. The common denominator in necrotizing soft tissue infections seems to be hypoxia resulting in necrosis. HBOT is used adjunctively with surgery and antibiotics to treat this invasive infection.


  • HBOT reduces the amount of hypoxic leukocyte disfunction within the area of infection
  • Provides oxygen to the ischemic areas limiting the spread of infection
  • Enhances antibiotic penetration into target area


Chronic Refractory Osteomyelitis is a bacterial infection of the bone marrow. It is difficult to treat due to the scarce amounts of blood vessels in the bone. Consequently antimicrobials do not penetrate bone well. Patients with osteomyelitis in the skull, spine or sternum have a high risk of morbidity and mortality.

  • Delivers oxygen in plasma to areas with little or no perfusion.
  • Provides 02 to fibroblasts-cells that make connective tissue-promoting healing in hypoxic tissue.
  • Enhances the effects of some antibiotics.
  • Prevents PMN leukocytes from adhering to to damaged blood vessel linings decreasing inflammation.

Radiation Injury

Radiation’s initial damage causes edema (swelling) and inflammation followed by erythema and obliterative endarteritis which increase hypoxia in the tissue. The damaged tissue has a lack of normal capillaries and arterioles. In addition, these capillaries are decreased and disorganized further contributing to tissue hypoxia. These changes often happen 6 months to years after the initial radiation treatments and can occur with as little as 3000 cGy.

HBOT can alleviate and repair the side effects of radiation.

HBO Changes this by

  • Improving tissue healing
  • Resolving radiation necrosis
  • Preventing radiation necrosis and supporting reconstructive surgery in irradiated tissue
  • Which triggers growth of new blood vessels and collagen synthesis

Severe Anemia

Exceptional Blood Loss Anemia is a marked loss of red blood cells by mass hemorrhage, hemolysis, or aplasia. Theses patients lack adequate oxygen carrying capacity by blood. Hyperbaric oxygen provides a way in exceptional blood loss anemia to successfully correct accumulating oxygen debt in un-transfusible patients

Skin Grafts and Flaps

Tissue grafts and flaps are used to reconstruct wound from Trauma, disease, tumors, burn, infections and prior surgeries. Despite careful planning and execution failure can occur for a variety of reasons resulting tissue loss, additional surgeries and negative physiological effects.

HBOT has demonstrated the ability to salvage compromised grafts and flaps.

  • Increases oxygen to grafted tissue prolonging graft survival while blood supply is established
  • Stimulates the growth of new blood vessels to ensure long term survival of tissue

Acute Thermal Burns

Burn wounds are complex injuries that change dynamically over the first 72 hours after injury. Swelling and damage to capillaries result in decreased tissue oxygenation. Early intervention with HBOT can reduce healing time.

  • Modulator for inflammation-decreased edema has a positive impact on hemodynamic instability and later wound conversion
  • Reduced scarring and hypertrophic scars
  • preservation of viable tissue
  • particular benefit for inhalation injury

HBOT and The Brain


Due to the increased number of patients with autism, families are searching for alternative treatments.  Traditional medicines often fail at producing desired results.

Preliminary studies demonstrate HBOT as a beneficial therapy to help ameliorate the effects of ASD.  HBOT has shown to decrease inflammation and improved overall cognitive functions.  Brain scans show increased perfusion in the brain, particularly the frontal lobe, post a series of HBO treatments.

Under Pressure Hyperbarics is working with  patients and their neurologists to ensure optimal benefits are achieved and therapy is stopped when patient plateaus.

Advance mental function:

  • Temporal lobe activation
  • Improves sensory/cognitive awareness
  • Increases attention span & alertness

Enhance brain healing & repair:

  • Moderates mitochondria dysfunction
  • Promotes neurogenises
  • Stimulates stem cell proliferation & mobilization
  • Actuates neuroplasticity
  • Increases oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissue
  • Reduces neuroinflammation

Improves physical function:

  • Promotes receptive/expressive language
  • Improves mobility
  • Stimulates better eye contact
  • Improves fine motor skills

Improve behavioral function:

  • Improves sleep patterns
  • Advances social skills & interaction
  • Reduces aggression

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral Palsy (CP) affects 1 in 303 children in the US making it the most devastating motor disability in childhood.  CP affects movement, posture and motor skills that often results in the need for life-long care.

Many forms of CP result from a lack of oxygen to the brain at birth.  The affected brain tissue can be recovered or improved by increasing the levels of oxygen in the brain.  HBOT has shown to be a promising treatment to ameliorate the effects of CP.

Enhance neurological repair & regeneration:

  • Promotes neurogenesis
  • Moderates mitchondrial disorders
  • Enhances stem cell mobilization and proliferation
  • Increases penumbra tissue recovery
  • Escalates neuroplasticity
  • Attenuates the effects of hypoxia on the neonatal brain

Improve overall function:

  • Advances cognitive function
  • Improves gross/fine motor skills
  • Enhances speech & language
  • Alleviates spasticity
  • Lessens frequency of seizures
  • Stimulates better eye contact
  • Improves balance & walking


Approximately 1 billion people, of all ages, are currently affected by neurological disorders, with an estimated 6.8 million related deaths that occur every single year worldwide.

For neuro-developmental and neuro-degenerative disorders, in addition to neurological injuries, HBOT provides the brain with increased levels of oxygen to help recover/repair brain tissue, increase neuronal stem cell growth and improve cognitive functioning. Many clinical studies have demonstrated the benefits of HBOT for neurological conditions.

Improve brain functioning & performance:

  • Stimulates angiogenesis
  • Improves cerebral oxygenation
  • Enhances memory and mental performance

Attenuate neuroinflammation:

  • Reduces cerebral edema
  • Decreases intracranial pressure
  • Reduces cerebral infarction
  • Reduces blood-brain barrier breakdown
  • Minimizes oxidative stress

Increase regeneration of the nervous system:

  • Stimulates neurogenesis
  • Promotes proliferation and mobilization of neural stem cells
  • Facilitates neuroplasticity

Improve brain repair & recovery:

  • Recovers & repairs damaged brain tissue
  • Develops & regains cognitive/motor functions


Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been shown to help prevent and treat stroke through a number of different mechanisms. HBOT can be used to precondition the brain by stimulating angiogenesis, thus producing more circulatory pathways throughout the brain and potentially decreasing the chance of stroke.

Furthermore, HBOT has been shown to benefit post-stroke patients, as compromised blood flow to the affected brain tissue (penumbra) and its functionality are recoverable by introducing increased levels of oxygen.

Stroke prevention:

  • Stimulates angiogenesis
  • Ameliorates atherosclerosis
  • Decreases oxidative stress in the brain
  • Preconditions the brain to enable neuroprotective properties

Stroke recovery:

  • Faster overall recovery
  • Improves vision and speech
  • Reduces paralysis
  • Accelerates gross/fine motor skills
  • Increases penumbra tissue recovery
  • Stimulates angiogenesis for faster reclamation
  • Promotes neurogenesis
  • Enhances stem cell proliferation & mobilization
  • Escalates neuroplasticity
  • Alleviates spasticity

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability and death worldwide.

According to the CDC, 138 people are affected by TBI every day and these injuries contribute to approximately 30% of all injury deaths in the U.S.

In 2010, about 2.5 million TBI related hospitalizations were recorded in the U.S. alone. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been demonstrated to enhance the recovery from TBI and augment brain activity by reducing hypoxia and neuroinflammation, while increasing circulation in the brain.

Furthermore, HBOT has been reported to synergistically enhance the effects of other therapies, including standard intensive rehabilitation, for TBI patients to help accelerate recovery.

Enhance neurological repair & Regeneration:

  • Attenuates the effects of hypoxia and inflammation in the brain
  • Promotes neurogenesis
  • Moderates mitochondrial disorders
  • Enhances stem cell mobilization and proliferation
  • Increases penumbra tissue recovery
  • Stimulates neuroplasticity
  • Induces remyelination
  • Augments concussion recovery

Improve overall function:

  • Advances cognitive function
  • Improves gross/fine motor skills
  • Enhances speech & language
  • Alleviates spasticity
  • Lessens frequency of seizures
  • Stimulates better eye contact
  • Improves balance & walking

Other Applications


HBOT has been show to help combat degenerative conditions by contributing to the regenerations of tissue and blood vessels.  It promotes collagen activation which can battle the signs of aging by maintaining elasticity and reducing skin damage.  Clinical studies have demonstrated the benefits for age-related degenerative conditions by providing cellular aid to all organs in the body promoting health and beauty.

Skin and HBOT:

  • maintains skin elasticity
  • stimulates epithelialization & reduces scar formation reduction
  • reduces skin damage (ultraviolet-A radiation apoptosis)

Brain and HBOT

  • Stimulates neurogenesis
  • Promotes neuroplasticity
  • Improves memory and reaction time

Circulation and Blood Flow

  • Stimulates Angiogenesis and Neo-vascularization (growth of new blood vessels)
  • Ameliorates Atherosclerosis
  • Combats and Prevents circulatory diseases including diabetes


HBOT has successfully been used to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as HD, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinsons and Alzheimers disease. HBOT does not cure these diseases but rather serves to slow the progression and minimize symptoms and maintain the body and brain at a functional level. The earlier treatment is initiated in relationship to the early diagnosis, the greater the benefits will be.


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide.  New integrated treatments are being utilized to help combat it’s devastating effects including HBOT.   HBOT is currently being used in conjunction with conventional treatments including radiation and chemotherapy to stimulate tumor regression and mitigate treatment side effects.

In addition, cancer thrives in low oxygen environments.  Increasing oxygen tension throughout the body can weaken tumors and slow their progression.

HBOT as an adjunct to conventional therapies:

  • Better radiation therapy results
  • improved chemotherapy outcome
  • allows for optimal therapy dosage to be attained
  • enhances brain treatment
  • Decreases tumor drug resistance
  • Increases post-operative fibroblast activation

HBOT reduces side effects of “conventional” treatments:

  • reduces radiation therapy side effects
  • decreases chemotherapy side effects
  • accelerates post-operative healing and prevents infection
  • reduces “chemo-brain syndrome” symptoms

Cancer Prevention:

  • decreases inflammatory markers
  • normalizes intracellular oxygen levels
  • reduces risk of pathogenic inflammatory-related tumors
  • supports cellular energy process for optimal DNA repair
  • stimulates cellular detoxification


Diabetes affects more than 12 million  people and is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States.Diabetes primarily affects the small blood vessels.HBOTstimulates angiogenesis to help ameliorate compromised blood flow and prevent organ failure.  HBOT has long been used to treat and heal diabetic wounds.

Research has shown that HBOT can lower blood sugar levels by increasing cellular sensitivity to insulin and skeletal muscle reception of glucose. Recent reports have provided evidence towards linking HBOT to regenerating pancreatic islets of Langerhans, thus potentially producing more insulin.HBOT is often beneficial in treating osteomyelitis and cellulitis, in addition to preventing systemic toxicity and permanent disability.


Stimulate angiogenesis reduce inflammation:

  • Improves brain function & reduces risk of stroke
  • Enhances heart function & reduces risk of heart attack
  • Reduces risk of diabetic retinopathy
  • Decreases risk of diabetic neuropathy
  • Minimizes risk of diabetic nephropathy
  • Combats cellulitis

Improve blood chemistry profile:

  • Fasting blood sugar
  • Hemoglobin HbA1C
  • Lipid profiles

Advance glycemic control:

  • Increases pancreatic islets of langerhans
  • Improves insulin sensitivity
  • Increases skeletal muscle reception of glucose

Decrease cardiovascular risk:

  • Promotes long-term blood pressure control
  • Attenuates metabolic syndrome
  • Reduces risk of sudden heart attack due to ventricular arrhythmia

Lyme Disease

The CDC reports there are over 300,00 new cases of Lyme Disease each year.  This bacterium’s protective biofilm makes it particularly difficult to treat.  The increased tissue oxygenation is not only lethal to this bacterium, it enhances your white blood cells and immune system to help combat the infection.  Careful dosing of HBOT should be used to reduce Herxheimer response from massive die offs.

At Under Pressure Hyperbarics we work with your primary treating physician to create a custom-tailored profile to ensure maximum benefit with minimal side effects.

Antibacterial Effects:

  • Enhanced white blood cell and immune system activity
  • Augments antibiotic interventions (pressures greater than 1.5ATA)
  • Increases Oxygen free radicals to combat Bb


  • Reduces chronic fatigue
  • Decreased neuroinflammation
  • improved concentration


  • Decreased inflammation reduces arthritic pain
  • Increased energy
  • Lessens muscle discomfort

Sports Injuries

Injuries caused by sports-related activities remain a substantial concern with players, coaches and parents alike.

As inflammation and pain play primary roles with respect to recovery, hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been shown to significantly reduce inflammation and ameliorate pain.

Additionally, HBOT can promote fibroblast/collagen activity to accelerate and enhance healing from surgeries and wounds.

New evidence supports HBOT as an adjunct and practical treatment to help moderate the effects of traumatic brain injuries and enhance brain imaging results.

HBOT is often utilized by physicians and patients to help reach a full recovery from high-impact insults to the body and is currently used by some of the U.S. Olympic Teams to treat sports-related injuries as a part of their official medical techniques and equipment.
Accelerate recovery from

sports-related injuries:

  • Increases collagen production
  • Reduces inflammation & pain
  • Faster & better recovery from sprains, tears & bone fractures
  • Stimulates angiogenesis
  • Enhances recovery from medial collateral ligament (MCL) & anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries
  • Decreases susceptibility towards reinjuring target areas
  • Rapid recovery from concussions & head injuries
  • Improves SPECT imaging results

Faster recovery from surgeries:

  • Increases fibroblast activation
  • Reduces inflammation for optimal pre-op conditions
  • Reduces risk of infection
  • Stimulates stem cell proliferation
  • Decreases hospital time

Enhance performance:

  • Improves concentration
  • Increases serotonin levels
  • Accelerates jet lag recovery
  • Decreases lactic acid

Stem Cells

Stem Cells have the remarkable potential to develop into numerous different cell types and serve as the body’s primary internal repair system.

The innate ability of stem cells to differentiate into other types of cells with specialized functions (blood, brain or tissue cells) replenishes and regenerates the body from the effects of age and disease.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been shown to significantly increase the concentration of circulating stem/progenitor cells within the peripheral circulation system. By increasing blood plasma oxygen levels, bone marrow derived stem cells were shown to significantly proliferate and mobilize.

​The proposed mechanism of action was through a nitric oxide dependent mechanism. This evidence plays a key role in regenerative medicine as the increased number of stem cells in the body have the ability provide enhanced and accelerated physiological repair.

Enhance stem cell activity:

  • Activates nitric oxide synthase type 3 (NOS-3)
  • Proliferates and mobilizes bone marrow derived stem cells
  • Improves engraftment and differentiation of several prognitor cell types in organs such as the spleen, bone marrow, brain, peripheral nerve, pancreas, cartilage & heart
  • Increases colony-forming cells
  • Stimulates stromal-derived growth factor
  • Reduces high ROS levels
  • Promotes endothelial growth factor-2 for angiogenesis
  • Increases CD34 expression & pluripotent stem cells

Enhance healing from disease/injury:

  • Accelerates growth & repair of damaged tissue
  • Improves tissue regeneration & organ functionality
  • Promotes neurogenesis
  • Stimulates osteogenesis
  • Ameliorates diabetic symptoms
  • Enhances recovery from heart attack

Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. and has been remained a leading cause of adult disability with 800,000 cases reported every single year.